Updated: 17 February 2023 & medically reviewed by Hailey Shafir
Cocaine is a highly addictive illegal substance that falls under the stimulant category. Untreated, cocaine addiction can lead to serious and lasting effects, and can even lead to fatal overdose.
- Cocaine is derived from coca leaves, most commonly grown in Central and South America. The leaves are chemically treated and processed to be turned into the powdered white substance sold as cocaine
- Cocaine abuse provides euphoria to occur by affecting the central nervous system and producing high levels of dopamine. The intensity and speed of cocaine's effect on the mind depend on the way in which it is taken
- Risk factors do not guarantee a person will become an addict to drugs such as cocaine, but their presence statistically increases the likelihood. For powdered cocaine, there are a variety of risk factors that determine how likely a person is to become addicted
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Cocaine, most commonly found as a white powder substance, is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system (CNS) causing feelings of euphoria as well as increased energy. Ingestion of cocaine is most commonly done by snorting, but it can also be smoked (usually as crack cocaine) or dissolved in water and taken intravenously. Cocaine is widely abused in the US and other nations and is highly addictive in nature.
Cocaine is derived from coca leaves, most commonly grown in Central and South America. The leaves are chemically treated and processed to be turned into the powdered white substance sold as cocaine. Almost 90 percent of the cocaine that comes into America is produced in Colombia, and almost all of it is smuggled across the Mexican border by members of dangerous drug cartels.
Cocaine is rarely pure and is often cut to increase profits. Sometimes, it is cut with dangerous drugs or chemicals that can be toxic for the brain and body and can even lead to accidental poisoning or overdose.
Read here to learn more about where cocaine comes from and how it is made.
Cocaine street names
Cocaine has many street or slang names, derived from multiple sources including the substance's appearance, origin, wordplay on cocaine, and its effect. Some of the most common cocaine street names include:
- C (or 'big C')
- Peruvian snowflake
- Columbian flake
- Gold dust
- Foo foo
- Nose candy
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Effects of cocaine abuse
Cocaine affects the central nervous system by stimulating high levels of dopamine, a neural chemical associated with pleasure and reward. Prolonged use of cocaine has a negative effect on the entire body and the potential for severe adverse side effects is high if taken for long enough. It can cause permanent changes to the brain and also has the potential to damage vital organs and an increased risk of heart problems and stroke.
Short-term effects of cocaine use
Cocaine abuse provides euphoria to occur by affecting the central nervous system and producing high levels of dopamine. The intensity and speed of cocaine's effect on the mind depend on the way in which it is taken. Smoking or intravenous injection causes cocaine to reach the brain in a matter of seconds, with a rapid build-up in intensity. This causes the ‘rush’, the rapid onset of euphoric sensations.
The duration of the rush from cocaine also differs depending on the type of cocaine used, with snorting normally lasting a total of 30 minutes and smoking or intravenous injection only 10 minutes. This short duration of effect is what commonly drives the user to take cocaine frequently and can lead to overdose (more so when injecting than snorting).
Short term adverse effects of cocaine use include:
Restlessness, agitation, and irritability
Loss of appetite and weight loss
Insomnia or trouble sleeping
Twitching and muscle spasms
Irregular or fast heart rate and increased BP
Paranoia or heightened anxiety
Feeling alert, happy, or euphoric
Increased impulsivity and risky decisions
Extreme alertness and hypersensitivity to touch, light, and sound
Extreme overconfidence or inflated sense of ego
Raised body temperature
Nausea or G.I. upset
Long-term effects of cocaine use
The brain develops a tolerance to cocaine quickly, meaning people who abuse cocaine regularly will require more for it to take effect. Using more cocaine to overcome tolerance increases the risk of becoming addicted to the drug.
Once a cocaine addiction forms, it is difficult for a person to stop using on their own, especially without treatment. Once addicted, people tend to experience negative effects on their physical and mental health, as well as at work, in relationships, and in other important areas of life.
Long-term psychological effects of cocaine use
Long-term use of cocaine can cause paranoia, irritability, insomnia, mood swings, and other mental health problems. The crash or come down from cocaine is usually experienced as physical and mental exhaustion, intermittent sleep, and depression often lasting a few days or a week.
After they come down, users often experience cravings to use the drug, making it difficult to quit, especially once dependence has formed. Many people also experience trouble focusing and concentrating and difficulty thinking clearly when withdrawing from cocaine. Some users will experience these symptoms for a few days to a week, while others may find their symptoms linger for months or even longer after stopping.
Long-term physical effects of cocaine use
The long-term consequences to the body caused by prolonged cocaine use are more severe, including:
Heart problems, irregular heart rate, and increased risk of stroke and heart attack
Coughing, asthma, pneumonia, lung conditions (for people who smoke crack)
Nosebleeds, running nose, and problems swallowing (for people who snort cocaine)
Increased risk of infections like HIV and Hepatitis (especially for those who inject)
Bowel decay or G.I. problems (for oral users)
Increased risk for addiction and overdose (especially for heavy users or poly-drug users)
Addiction to cocaine
Cocaine is highly addictive and it is not always apparent when an addiction has formed. Ignoring the come down that occurs after cocaine usage and then craving it again are strong indicators of addiction. Once addicted to cocaine, it is very difficult to stop taking it. This is because the increased levels of dopamine caused by taking cocaine can permanently change the reward system in the brain.
This is classed as a psychological addiction and is very hard to overcome, though the physical symptoms of cocaine addiction are undeniably challenging as well. Frequent cocaine use will very easily become a dependency, meaning the user will require cocaine in order to feel a sense of normality. As the effects of cocaine are short-lived, it is not always easy to spot the warning signs of addiction and abuse.
Cocaine use disorder (the clinical name for cocaine addiction) can only be diagnosed by a licensed health, mental health, or addiction specialist during a formal assessment. Cocaine use disorder will often be diagnosed if a person displays two or more of the following criteria:
Hazardous cocaine use
Social or interpersonal problems related to cocaine use
Neglected major responsibilities to use cocaine
Experiencing cocaine withdrawal symptoms
Developing a tolerance
Using larger amounts
Repeated attempts to quit or control cocaine use
Excessive time spent using cocaine
Physical or psychological problems related to cocaine use
Activities replaced by cocaine use
Factors that influence cocaine addiction
Risk factors do not guarantee a person will become an addict to drugs such as cocaine, but their presence statistically increases the likelihood. For powdered cocaine, there are a variety of risk factors that determine how likely a person is to become addicted. These include:
Environmental risk factors like community crime and unemployment
Social risk factors such as cocaine exposure from friends or partners
Minority status risk factors like discrimination and generational assimilation
Family risk factors like parental cocaine abuse and parental neglect
Constitutional risk factors like physical or learning disabilities
Behavioral risk factors like low self-esteem and delinquency
Treating a cocaine addiction
Like any drug addiction, cocaine addiction can be hard to overcome, especially alone. Though some people are able to stop and conquer cocaine addiction on their own, most will require rehab or a cocaine detox treatment program. Cocaine addiction treatment greatly increases the likelihood of overcoming an addiction to cocaine, and a number of options may be available to you, some at little or no cost. Reaching out to an addiction treatment center or licensed addiction specialist is the best way to determine your options for cocaine treatment and help you determine which is right for you.
Visit our rehab directory to get treatment for cocaine addiction today.
Here are some commonly asked questions about cocaine:
What does cocaine cost?
The price of cocaine has changed greatly since its heyday in the 1970s and 80s. Once seen as the drug of choice for the rich and famous, cocaine is now more widely available and affordable, making it more likely for people to try and potentially become addicted. Click here for more information on the price of cocaine.
What does cocaine look like?
Cocaine is normally sold as a crystalline powder that is white or off-white in color and odorless. Crack cocaine comes in the form of small chunks, often referred to as rocks, that have an off whitish color and are normally smoked. Read here to learn more about what crack looks, smells, and tastes like.
Are crack and cocaine the same thing?
Crack and cocaine are chemically identical but are processed differently to result in either a snortable powder or in hard smokable rocks called crack. According to the Manual of Substance Abuse Treatment, Crack is the most potent and addictive form of cocaine. The high is fast and intense, and due to the low cost can be highly addictive. You can find out more about crack cocaine here.
Is cocaine pure?
No. In most cases, cocaine is diluted, or cut, with different substances such as anesthetics, laundry detergent, caffeine, and boric acid. The reason it is cut is to stretch the amount of product sold by dealers while still offering a high to the buyer. Read here to find out exactly how cocaine is made and what goes into it.
Is it safe to use cocaine with alcohol?
Cocaine and alcohol consumed together produce a metabolite reaction known as cocaethylene. Cocaethylene has a toxic effect on the heart and liver, increasing the risk of strokes and heart attacks. Combining cocaine and alcohol is highly dangerous and often increases the risk of physical and psychological damage, as well as heightening the risk for addiction.
What happens when you mix cocaine and heroin?
Mixing cocaine and heroin is often referred to as speedballing, as the former is a CNS stimulant and the latter an opioid depressant. Cocaine causes the body to use more oxygen and heroin slows breathing, starving the brain and body. This can lead to aneurysm, stroke, loss of motor skills, and fatal respiratory failure.
Is it safe to use cocaine with any other drug?
Combining substances, or poly-drug use is highly common with cocaine abusers and is extremely dangerous as it increases the chance of overdose. Often, these drugs have dangerous interactions when combined, leading to more serious health and mental health effects.
Is cocaine mixed with fentanyl dangerous?
Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid pain reliever that is 50 times more potent than heroin and 100 times more than morphine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If cocaine is contaminated with fentanyl it can cause permanent brain damage, cardiac arrest, and even death. Fentanyl contamination is becoming more common, and there is no way for the average user to determine if their cocaine is contaminated. You can find out more about the risks of fentanyl abuse in our guide.
Is cocaine illegal?
Yes. Cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act, meaning it has a high potential for abuse and has an accepted medical use for treatment in the United States. Possessing even small amounts of cocaine is illegal and can lead to prosecution and even jail time. you can learn more about the Controlled Substance Act here.
How long does cocaine stay in your system?
Cocaine detection rates through toxicology drug tests can vary from person to person. Click here for more details on how long cocaine stays in urine, blood, saliva, and hair.