Dr. Philip Gold

Dr. Philip Gold


Dr. Philip Gold is one of the world’s leading researchers of depressive illness. For over three decades he has worked at the National Institutes of Health, where he has served as Chief of Neurodendocrine Research and Senior Investigator in the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program, and Chief of the Section on Neuroendocrinology. In his recent book, Breaking Through Depression: A Guide to the Next Generation of Promising Research and Revolutionary New Treatments, he draws upon his long-term research to delve into the interplay between our anatomy and our lived experiences as the key to understanding why there are such individual differences in how we make connections with others, deal with adversity, or recover from trauma. Offering an inspiring exploration of the recent advances, Dr. Gold reveals the latest breakthroughs that can heal people struggling with depression to offer promising paths to wellness for millions. 

Dr. Gold trained in psychoanalytic psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. In his role at the NIH, he has studied the neurobiology of depression for decades and led a laboratory of over 30 individuals trained in neuroscience, molecular biology, endocrinology, neurology and psychiatry. He has written over 400 scientific articles that have been cited by over 65,000 publications including 16 in The New England Journal of Medicine. He has served as a member of the Library of Congress Council of Scholars, participated in the MacArthur Foundation Medical Network, received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Athens School of Medicine, and was chosen as a Distinguished Alumnus of the Duke University School of Medicine. An Overseas Fellow for The British Royal Society of Medicine, Dr. Gold has won many national and international awards including the Curt Richter Prize (Vienna, Austria), The Fish Memorial Prize and Lecture (Brown University School of Medicine), The Alan Walters Memorial Prize (University of Toronto School of Medicine), and The Heinz Lehman Memorial Lecture, Keynote Speaker, Research Day (McGill University School of Medicine.) Dr. Gold also received The American Psychiatric Association highest honor, The Foundation Fund Prize for Research, and has delivered honorary lectures at Harvard University and the Japan Foundation. 

Education, honors, and awards

  • Duke University, Durham - B.A. (English)
  • Duke University School of Medicine - M.D.
  • Harvard Medical School - Residency in Psychiatry 1971 - 1974
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development - Fellowship in Endocrinology 1979 - 1982
  • John Kluge Center, Library of Congress - Distinguished Scholar 2005 - 2006
  • University of Athens School of Medicine - Honorary Doctoral Degree
  • British Royal Society of Medicine - Overseas Fellow
  • Google Scholar - Highly Cited Author
  • Reuters - Highly Cited Author
  • Duke University School of Medicine - Distinguished Alumnus Award

Articles, papers, and journals


    • Gold, P.W., Kaye,W.H., Robertson, G.L., Ebert, M.: Abnormalities in plasma cerebrospinal fluid arginine vasopressin in patients with anorexia nervosa. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:1117-1123, 1983.
    • Chrousos, G.P., Schulte, H.M., Oldfield, E.H., Gold, P.W., Cutler, G.B., Jr., Loriaux, D.L.: The corticotropin releasing factor stimulation test: an aid in the evaluation of patients with Cushing's syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 310:622-626, 1984. 
    • Gold, P.W., Loriaux, D.L., Roy, A., Kling, M.A., Calabrese, J.R., Kellner, C.H., Nieman, L.K., Post, R.M., Pickar, D., Gallucci, W.T., Averginos, P.C., Paul, S.M., Oldfield, E.H., Cutler, G.B., Chrousos, G.P.: Responses to corticotropin releasing hormone in the hypercortisolism of depression and Cushing's disease. pathophysiologic and diagnostic implications. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:1329-1335, l986.
    • Gold, P.W., Gwirtsman, H.E., Avgerinos, P.C., Nieman, L.K., Gallucci, W.T., Kaye, W.H., Jimerson, D., Ebert, M., Rittmaster, R., Loriaux, D.L., Chrousos, G.P.: Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in anorexia nervosa. Pathophysiological mechanisms in underweight and weight-corrected patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:1335-1342, l986.
    • Luger, A., Deuster, P., Kyle, S.B., Gallucci, W.T., Montgomery, L.C., Loriaux, D.L., Gold, P.W., and Chrousos, G.P.: Acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise; physiologic adaptations to physical training. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:1309-1315, 1987. 
    • Gold, P.W., Goodwin, F.K., Chrousos, G.P.: Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression: Relation to the neurobiology of stress. Part I. N. Engl. J. Med. 399:348-353, 1988.
    • Gold, P.W., Goodwin, F.K., Chrousos, G.P.: Clinical and biochemical manifestations of depression: Relation to the neurobiology of stress. Part II. N. Engl. J. Med. 319:371-374, 1988.
    • Michelson, D., Stratakis, C., Hill, L., Reynolds, J., Galliven, E., Chousos, G.P., Gold, P.W.:  Bone Mineral Density in Women With Depression. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:1176-1181, 1996.

    • Sternberg, M.E., Hill, J.M., Chrousos, G.P., Kamilaris, T., Listwak, S.J., Gold, P.W., Wilder R.L.: Inflammatory mediator-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation is defective in streptococcal cell wall arthritis-susceptible Lewis rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:2374-2378, 1989. 
    • Sternberg, E.M., Young, W.S., Jr., Bernardini, R., Calogero, A.E., Chrousos, G.P., Gold, P.W., and Wilder, R.L.: A central nervous defect in biosynthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone is associated with susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis in Lewis rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:4771-4775, 1989.
    • Licinio, J., Negrao, A., Mantzoros, C., Kaklamani, V., Wong, M.L., Bongiorno, P.B., Mulla, A., Cearnal, L., Veldhuis, J.D., Flier, J.S., McCann, S.M., Gold, P.W.:  Synchronicity of frequently sampled, 24-h concentrations of circulating leptin, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in healthy women. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA  95:2541-2546, 1998.
    • Wong, M.L., Kling, M.A., Munson, P.J., Listwak, S., Licinio, J., Prolo, P., Karp, B., McCutcheon, I.E., Geracioti, T.D., Jr., DeBellis, M.D., Rice, K.C., Goldstein, D.S., Veldhuis, J.D., Chrousos, G..P, Oldfield, E.H., McCann, S.M., Gold, P.W.: Pronounced and sustained central hypernoradrenergic function in major depression with melancholic features: relation to hypercortisolism and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA 97:325-30, 2000.
    • Wong, M.L., Xie, B., Beatini, N., Phu, P., Marathe, S., Johns, A., Gold, P.W., Hirsch, E., Williams, K.J., Licinio, J., Tabas, I.: Acute systemic inflammation up-regulates secretory sphingomyelinase in vivo: a possible link between inflammatory cytokines and atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA 97:8681-6, 2000. 
    • Habib, K.,Weld, K.P., Rice, K.C., Pushkas, J., Champoux, M., Listwak, S., Webster, E.L., Atkinson, A.J., Schulkin, J., Contoreggi, C., Chrousos, G.P., McCann, S.M., Suomi, S.J., Higley, J.D., Gold, P.W.: Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA  97:6079-84, 2000.
    • Wong, M.L., O'Kirwan, F., Khan, N., Hannestad, J., Wu, K.H., Elashoff, D., Lawson, G., Gold, P.W., McCann, S.M., Licinio, J.:  Identification, characterization, and gene expression profiling of endotoxin-induced myocarditis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA 100(24):14241-6, 2003. 
    • Gold, P.W., Wong, M.L., Goldstein, D.S., Gold, H.K., Ronsaville, D.S., Esler, M., Alesci, S., Masood, A., Licinio, J., Geracioti, T.D. Jr., Perini, G., DeBellis, M.D., Holmes, C., Vgontzas, A.N., Charney, D.S., Chrousos, G.P., McCann, S.M., Kling, M.A.: Cardiac implications of increased arterial entry and reversible 24-h central and peripheral norepinephrine levels in melancholia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:8303-8, 2005.

    • Wong M-L, Rettori V., Al-Shekhlee A, Borngiorno PB, Canteros G, McCann SM, Gold PW, Licinio J. Inducible Nitric oxide synthase gene expression in the brain during systemic inflammation. Nature Medicine l996; 5:581-4.
    • Licinio J., Mantzoros C., Negrao A.B., Cizza G., Wong M.L., Bongiorno P.B., Chrousos G.P., Karp B., Allen C., Flier J.S., Gold P.W.  Human leptin levels are pulsatile and inversely related to pituitary-adrenal function. Nature Medicine. 1997; 3:575-79

    • Schulte, H.M., Chrousos, G.P., Gold, P.W., Booth, J.D., Oldfield, E.H., Cutler, G.B., Jr., and Loriaux, D.L.: Continuous administration of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor in man: physiological and pathophysiological implications. J. Clin. Invest. 75:l781-1785, 1985. 
    • Calogero, A.E., Gallucci, W.T., Chrousos, G.P. Gold, P.W. Catecholamine effects upon rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion in vitro. J. Clin. Invest. 82:839-846, 1988
    • Crofford, L.J., Rader, J.I., Dalakas, M.C., Hill, Jr., R.H., Page, S.W., Needham, L.L., Brady,  L.S., Heyes, M.P., Wilder, R.L., Gold, P.W., Smith, C.: L-tryptophan implicated in human     eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome causes fasciitis and perimyositis in the Lewis rat. J. Clin. Invest.  86:1757-1763, 1990.
    • Brady, L.S., Whitfield, H.J., Fox., R.J., Gold, P.W., and Herkenham, M.: Long-term antidepressant administration alters corticotropin-releasing hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase and mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression in rat brain. Therapeutic implications. J. Clin. Invest. 87:831-837, 1991.
    • Kvetnansky R., Palkovits M., Fukuhara, K., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G.P., Goldstein D.S., and Gold P.W. Aging is associated in the Fischer 344/N rat with reduced noradrenegic activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and in the plasma after acute immobilization: an in vitro microdialysis study. J Clin Invest l995; 95:1217-1224
    • Kalogeras K.T., Nieman L.K., Friedman T.C., Doppman J.L., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.l., Gold P.W., Yanovski J.A. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling in healthy human subjects reveals a unilateral corticotropin-releasing-hormone-induced arginine vasopressin release associated with ipsilateral adrenocorticotropin secretion. J. Clin. Invest. 1996; 97:2054-2060.
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